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#### Contingency Table | Cross Classification: Introduction

A bivariate relationship is defined by the joint distribution of the two associated random variables. Contingency Tables Let and are two categorical response variables. Let variable have levels and variable have levels. The possible combinations of classifications for both variables are . The response of a subject randomly chosen from some population has a probability […]

#### Matrix Introduction

Matrices are everywhere. If you have used a spreadsheet program such as MS-Excel, Lotus or written a table (such as in Ms-Word) or even have used mathematical or statistical software such a Mathematica, Matlab, Minitab, SAS, SPSS and Eviews etc., you have used a matrix. Matrices make the presentation of numbers clearer and make calculations […]

#### Number System

In early civilizations, the number of animals (sheep, goat, and camel etc.) or children people have were tracked by using different methods such as people match the number of animals with the number of stones. Similarly, they count the number of children with the number of notches tied on a string or marks on a […]

#### The Z-score

The Z-Score The Z-score also referred to as standardized raw scores is a useful statistic because not only permits to compute the probability (chances or likelihood) of raw score (occurring within normal distribution) but also it helps to compare two raw scores from different normal distributions. The Z-score is a dimensionless measure since it is […]

#### Multicollinearity in Linear Regression Models

Multicollinearity in Linear Regression Models The objective of multiple regression analysis is to approximate the relationship of individual parameters of a dependency, but not of interdependency. It is assumed that the dependent variable and regressors ‘s are linearly related to each other (Graybill, 1980; Johnston, 1963 and Malinvaud, 1968). Therefore, inferences depicted from any regression […]

#### R Frequently Asked Questions

#### Vectors in R Language

In R Language, a vector is the simplest data structure. A vector in R is also an object that contains elements having the same data type. To create a vector (say ‘x’) of the same type (say double) of elements consisting of five elements one can use c() function. For example, Creating a vector in […]

#### Reading and Writing data in R

Reading and Writing Data in R Reading Data in R For reading (importing) data into R following are some functions. read.table(), and read.csv(), for reading tabular data readLines() for reading lines of a text file source() for reading in R code files (inverse of dump) dget() for reading in R code files (inverse of dput) […]

#### List in R Language

In R language, list is an object that consists of an ordered collection of objects known as its components. A list in R Language is a structured data that can have any number of any modes (types) of other structured data. That is, one can put any kind of object (like vector, data frame, character […]

#### R workspace, object and .RData file

The R program’s structure is similar to the programs written in other computer languages such as C or its successors C++ and Java. However, important differences between these languages and R are (i) R has no header files, (ii) most of the declarations are implicit, (iii) there are no pointers in R, and (iv) text […]

#### mctest: An R package for Detection of Collinearity among Regressors

The problem of multicollinearity plagues the numerical stability of regression estimates. It also causes some serious problem in validation and interpretation of the regression model. Consider the usual multiple linear regression model, , where is an vector of observation on dependent variable, is known design matrix of order , having full-column rank , is vector of […]

#### Statistical Models in R Language

R language provides an interlocking suite of facilities that make fitting statistical models very simple. The output from statistical models in R language is minimal and one needs to ask for the details by calling extractor functions. Defining Statistical Models; Formulae in R Language The template for a statistical model is a linear regression model […]