# Sampling Error Definition, Example, Formula

**Sampling error** also called **estimation error** is the amount of inaccuracy in estimating some value that is caused by only a portion of a population (i.e. *sample*) rather than the whole population. It is the difference between the statistic (value of sample, such as sample mean) and the corresponding parameter (value of population, such as population mean) is called the sampling error. If $\bar{x}$ is the sample statistic and $\mu$ is the corresponding parameter then the sampling error is $\bar{x} – \mu$.

Exact calculation/ measurements of **sampling error** is not feasible generally as the true value of population is unknown usually, however it can often be estimated by probabilistic modeling of the sample.

**Cause of Sampling Error**

- The cause of the Error discussed may be due to the biased sampling procedure. Every research should select sample(s) that is free from any bias and the sample(s) is representative of the entire population of interest.
- Another cause of this Error is chance. The process of randomization and probability sampling is done to minimize the sampling process error but it is still possible that all the randomized subjects/ objects are not the representative of the population.

*Eliminate/ Reduce the Sampling Error*

The elimination/ Reduction of sampling error can be done when a proper and unbiased probability sampling technique is used by the researcher and the sample size is large enough.

**Increasing the sample size**

The sampling error can be reduced by increasing the sample size. If the sample size*n*is equal to the population size*N*, then the sampling error will be zero.**Improving the sample design i.e. By using the stratification**

The population is divided into different groups containing similar units.

Also Read: Sampling and NonSampling Errors