Basic Statistics and Data Analysis

Lecture notes, MCQS of Statistics

Introduction to R Language

Introduction to R LanguageWhat is R (Language)
R is an open-source (GPL) programming language for statistical computing and graphics, made after S and S-plus language. The S language was developed by AT & T laboratories in late 80’s. Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka started the research project of the statistics Department of the University of Auckland in 1995 and called R Language.

R language is currently maintained by the R core-development team (international team of volunteer developers). The (R Project website) is the main site for information about R. From this page information about obtaining software, accompanying package and many other sources of documentation (help files) can be obtained.

R provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques such as linear and non-linear modeling, classical statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, multivariate analysis etc., as it is an integrated suite of software having facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphics display. It includes

  • Effective data handling and storage facilities
  • Have suite of operators for calculation on arrays, particularly for matrices
  • Have a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis
  • Graphical data analysis
  • Conditions, loops, user-define recursive functions and input output facilities.

Obtaining R Software
R program can be obtained/ download from the R Project site the ready-to-run (binaries) files for several operating system such as Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, etc. The source code for R is also available for download and can be compiled for other platforms. R language simplifies many statistical computations as R is a very powerful statistical language having many statistical routines (programming code) developed by people from all over the world and are freely available from the R project website ( as “Packages”. The basic installation of R language contains many powerful set of tools and it includes some basic packages required for data handling and data analysis.

Many users of R think of R as a statistical system, but it is an environment within which statistical techniques are implemented. R can also be extended via packages.

Installing R
For windows operating system binary version is available from http://cran.r- “R-3.0.0-win.exe. R-3.0.0” is the latest version of R released on 03-April-2013, by Duncan Murdoch.
After downloading the binary file double click it, an almost automatic installation of the R system will start although the customized installation option is also available. Follow the instruction during the installation procedure. Once Installation process is complete, you have R icon on your computer desktop.

The R Console
When R starts, you will see R console windows, where you type some commands to get required results. Note that commands are typed on R Console command prompt. You can also edit the commands previously typed on command prompt by using left, right, up, down arrow keys, home, end, backspace, insert and delete key from keyboard. Command history can be get by up and down arrow keys to scroll through recent commands. It is also possible to type commands in a file and then execute the file using the source function in R console.

Following books can be useful for learning R and S language.

  • “Psychologie statistique avec R” by Yvonnick Noel. Partique R. Springer, 2013.
  • “Instant R: An introduction to R for statistical Analysis” by Sarah Stowell. Jotunheim Publishing, 2012.
  • “Financial Risk Modeling and Portfolio Optimization with R” by Bernhard Pfaff. Wiley, Chichester, Uk, 2012.
  • “An R companion to Applied Regression” by John Fox and Sanfor Weisberg, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2nd Edition, 2011,
  • “R Graphs Cookbook” by Hrishi Mittal, Packt Publishing, 2011
  • “R in Action” by Rob Kabacoff. Manning, 2010.
  • “The statistical analysis with R Beginners Guide” by John M. Quick. Packt Publishing, 2010.
  • “Introducing Monte Carlo Methods with R” by Christian Robert and George Casella. Use R. Springer, 2010.
  • “R for SAS and SPSS users” by Robert A. Muenchen. Springer Series in Statistics and Computing. Springer, 2009.

Web Sources
Following are some useful web source for learning R

Download Introduction to R Language Programming pdf file : 


The Author

Muhammad Imdadullah

Student and Instructor of Statistics and business mathematics. Currently Ph.D. Scholar (Statistics), Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. Like Applied Statistics and Mathematics and Statistical Computing. Statistical and Mathematical software used are: SAS, STATA, GRETL, EVIEWS, R, SPSS, VBA in MS-Excel. Like to use type-setting LaTeX for composing Articles, thesis etc.

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