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#### Top Posts & Pages

#### GM Statistics

#### Chi-Square Test of Independence

Chi-square test is a non-parametric test. The assumption of normal distribution in the population is not required for this test. The statistical technique chi-square can be used to find the association (dependencies) between sets of two or more categorical variables by comparing how close the observed frequencies are to the expected frequencies. In other words, […]

#### Mean: Measure of Central Tendency

Mean: Measure of Central Tendency The measure of Central Tendency Mean (also know as average or arithmetic mean) is used to describe the data set as a single number (value) which represents the middle (center) of the data, that is average measure (performance, behaviour, etc) of data. This measure of central tendency is also known […]

#### Probability and Non-Probability Sampling

Probability sampling In probability each unit of the population has known (non-zero) probability of being included in the sample and samples are selected randomly by using some random selection method. That’s why, probability sampling may also be called random sampling. In probability sampling reliability of the estimates can be determined. In probability sampling, samples are […]

#### Sampling Basics

It is often required to collect information from the data. There two methods for collecting the required information. Complete information Sampling Complete Information In this method the required information are collected from each and every individual of the population. This method is used when it is difficult to draw some conclusion (inference) about the population […]

#### What is research? Why do we conduct it?

Research is inquiry. It is a process of discovering some new knowledge, that involves multiple elements such as theory development and testing, empirical inquiry, and sharing the generated knowledge with others such as experts and colleagues. A short description about elements of theory is: Theory is a set of ideas and perceptions that helps people […]

#### R Frequently Asked Questions

#### R Basics

Question 1: How can I retrieve (load) the work that is saved using history function in R? Answer: The loadhistory() function will load an “.Rhistory“file. > loadhistory(“d:/file_name.Rhistory”) This function will load file named “file_name.Rhistory” from D: drive. The other way may be to access .Rhistory file through the file menu. For this click File and … Continue reading “R Basics”

#### R FAQs: Getting Help in R

Question: How one can get help about different command in R Language? Answer: There are many ways to get help about different command (functions). R has built-in help facility which is similar to man facility in Unix. For beginners of R language, help() function or ? can be used to get help about different commands … Continue reading “R FAQs: Getting Help in R”

#### R FAQs: Saving and Loading R workspace

Question: Can I save my work in R Language? Answer: R language facilitates to save ones R work. Question: How to save work done in R? Answer: All of the objects and functions that are created (you R workspace) can be saved in a file .RData by using the save() function or the save.image() function. … Continue reading “R FAQs: Saving and Loading R workspace”

#### R FAQs: Handling Missing values in R

Question: What are the differences of missing values in R and other Statistical Packages? Answer: Missing values (NA) cannot be used in comparisons, as already discussed in previous post on missing values in R. In other statistical packages (softwares) a “missing value” is assigned some code either very high or very low in magnitude such … Continue reading “R FAQs: Handling Missing values in R”

#### R FAQS about Matrix | Data Structure for Matrix in R

Question: What is matrix in R? Answer: In R language matrices are two dimensional arrays of elements all of which are of the same type, for example numbers, character strings or logical values. Matrices may be constructed using the built in function “matrix”, which reshapes its first argument into a matrix having specified number of … Continue reading “R FAQS about Matrix | Data Structure for Matrix in R”

#### R FAQ missing values

Question: Can missing values be handled on R? Answer: Yes, in R language one can handle missing values. The way of dealing with missing values is different as compared to other statistical softwares such as SPSS, SAS, STATA, EVIEWS etc. Question: What is the representation of missing values in R Language? Answer: In R missing … Continue reading “R FAQ missing values”