# Muhammad Imdad Ullah

Currently working as Assistant Professor of Statistics in Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan. Completed my Ph.D. in Statistics from the Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. l like Applied Statistics, Mathematics, and Statistical Computing. Statistical and Mathematical software used is SAS, STATA, Python, GRETL, EVIEWS, R, SPSS, VBA in MS-Excel. Like to use type-setting LaTeX for composing Articles, thesis, etc.

## Factorial Experiment

In factorial experiments, the effect of two or more factors, each at two or more discrete possible levels are simultaneously investigated for all possible combinations using some suitable basic experimental design.

The experiment allows us to estimate the effect of each factor and the interaction effect of factors on the response.

A factorial design was initially used in the 19th century at Rothamsted Experimental Station (one of the oldest research stations in the UK). Ronal Fisher and Frank Yates are the pioneers of factorial design.

Experiments are often planned to investigate the effects of (say), different rates of fertilizers, different dates of planting, different categories of education, different intensities of a stimulus, etc.

The independent variables such as fertilizers, planting, education, and stimulus, etc., are called factors. In contrast, the values such as rates, dates, categories, or intensities at which a factor is held fixed, are known as levels. In the figure below, the “Amount of Seeding” is a factor variable, while 60kg, 50kg, and 80kg are levels of the factor “Amount of Seeding”. There are three levels of this factor variable.

## Types of Factorial Experiments

There are two types of factorial experiments

### Full Factorial Experiment

The experimental units of such an experiment take on all possible combinations of all levels across all the factors. Therefore, a full factorial design is also called a fully crossed design.

### Fractional Factorial Experiment

If the full factorial design includes too many combinations (runs) to be logically feasible, a fractional factorial may be used. The fractional factorial design may include half, one-third, etc. runs of a full factorial experiment.

In factorial experiments, we try to perform one rather than two, three, or more single-factor experiments. The single experiment involves a factorial set of treatments, that is, the treatments are all possible combinations of various levels of different factors.

The effect of a factor is defined to be the change in response produced by a change in the level of factors. This is called the main effect.

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## MCQs MS Excel

The post is about MCQs MS Excel which serves as a valuable resource for enhancing skills and preparing for exams such as MS-CIT, entrance exams, and university assessments. This quiz encompasses both fundamental and advanced aspects of MS Excel to assist professionals and students alike. Let us start with MCQs MS Excel.

Online MCQs MS Excel with answers

1. A data analyst locks the rows and columns in their spreadsheet by wrapping their function’s data array in dollar signs ($). Why would they do this? 2. A cell is defined as 3. ____ is not a function in Excel. 4. A data analyst uses the SUM function to add together numbers from a spreadsheet. After getting a zero result, they realize the numbers are text. What function can they use to convert the text to a numeric value? 5. If cells A1 and A2 are empty, what will be the value of the following Excel Formula? =A1 * A2 6. Which symbol is used to specify the fixed columns or rows in the formula? 7. ____ type of chart is good for a single series of data. 8. When using VLOOKUP, there are some common limitations that data analysts should be aware of. One of these limitations is that VLOOKUP can only return a value from the data to the left of the matched value. 9. When writing a function, a data analyst wraps a table array in dollar signs. This is an _____, which is used to lock the array so rows and columns don’t change if the function is copied. 10. What is an Excel feature that displays only the data in column (s) according to specified criteria? 11. Which option allows you to display all numbers that are less than 0 (negative numbers) in red color in MS Excel? 12. _____ Excel function returns TRUE or FALSE based on two or more conditions 13. The interface provided by a matrix of rows and columns for manipulation with numeric data is called. 14. The VALUE function converts a numeric value into a text string in a spreadsheet. 15. MS Excel function VLOOKUP can have problems when used on data values that have leading and trailing spaces. What function can be used to eliminate these spaces? 16. _________ is the correct syntax of the IF() Function. 17. A function is created using data values from a specified array. It works correctly only some of the time. You verify that the function was used correctly and you ask a colleague for their input. They ask if you locked the data array. What does this mean? 18. A data analyst creates an absolute reference around a function array. What is the purpose of the absolute reference? 19. What happens when you click on CTRL + X after selecting some cells in Excel? 20. ____ happens when you select a cell in MS Excel and type “=B25” Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet software that is an integral part of the MS Office software Package. A software that is capable of performing calculations from daily life to advanced level. One can perform calculations from basic mathematics to advanced including statistical and financial computations. Schools, colleges, Universities, and Examination and Testing conducting authorities such as FPSC, NTS, KPPSC, PPSC SPSC, and others, are adding computer MCQs in their test patron to check CIT and computer-related knowledge of the applicants. MCQs MS Excel covers basic topics of Microsoft MS Excel, it especially focuses on MS Excel for statistical computations. ### MCQs MS Excel • MS Excel function VLOOKUP can have problems when used on data values that have leading and trailing spaces. What function can be used to eliminate these spaces? • A function is created using data values from a specified array. It works correctly only some of the time. You verify that the function was used correctly and you ask a colleague for their input. They ask if you locked the data array. What does this mean? • A data analyst uses the SUM function to add together numbers from a spreadsheet. After getting a zero result, they realize the numbers are text. What function can they use to convert the text to a numeric value? • When using VLOOKUP, there are some common limitations that data analysts should be aware of. One of these limitations is that VLOOKUP can only return a value from the data to the left of the matched value. • A data analyst locks the rows and columns in their spreadsheet by wrapping their function’s data array in dollar signs ($). Why would they do this?
• When writing a function, a data analyst wraps a table array in dollar signs. This is an __________, which is used to lock the array so rows and columns don’t change if the function is copied.
• The VALUE function converts a numeric value into a text string in a spreadsheet.
• A data analyst creates an absolute reference around a function array. What is the purpose of the absolute reference?
• The interface provided by a matrix of rows and columns for manipulation with numeric data is called.
• A cell is defined as
• __________ is the correct syntax of the IF() Function.
• __________ type of chart is good for a single series of data.
• What is an Excel feature that displays only the data in column (s) according to specified criteria?
• __________ is not a function in Excel.
• Excel function returns TRUE or FALSE based on two or more conditions
• What happens when you click on CTRL + X after selecting some cells in Excel?
• __________ happens when you select a cell in MS Excel and type “=B25”
• Which symbol is used to specify the fixed columns or rows in the formula?
• Which option allows you to display all numbers that are less than 0 (negative numbers) in red color in MS Excel?
• If cells A1 and A2 are empty, what will be the value of the following Excel Formula? =A1 * A2

Note that most of the questions in the quiz apply to almost all versions of MS Excel. The questions included in the MCQs MS Excel Quizzes are asked as part of the computer operation general knowledge section of the basic computer awareness test.

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## MCQs Multivariate Statistics 4

The post is about MCQs Multivariate Statistics with Answers. It covers topics of Eigen values, Eigen Vectors, Moderation, and Mediation, etc.

Please go to MCQs Multivariate Statistics 4 to view the test

#### Online MCQs Multivariate Statistics

• The word “Eigen” originates from  – – – – – – -.
• Eigenvectors are by definition – – – – – – – – -.
• Eigenvalues may be equal to – – – – – – – – -.
• Eigenvectors with distinct Eigenvalues are – – – – – – – – -.
• Singular Matrices have Eigenvalues
• If the Eigenvalues are negative the direction is – – – – – – – -.
• If one of the Eigenvalues of $[A]_{n\times n}$ is zero, it implies – – – – – – -.
• The word Eigen means – – – – – – – -‘
• Which of the following is an orthogonal rotation in factor analysis – – – – – – – – -.
• If a researcher wants to determine the amount of variance in the original variables that is associated with a factor, they would use?
• Which of the following are violations of as assumption underlying regression analysis – – –  – – – – -.
• The percentage of variance criteria specifies that the number of factors to be extracted is determined by the cumulative percentage of variance extracted reaching a satisfactory level. This level should be at least – – – – – – – -.
• A moderator effect is where the size of the relationship between one variable and another variable is:
• Moderation effect is also known as – – – – – – – -.
• The combined effect of two variables on one another is known conceptually as ————–, and in statistical terms as ————-.
• Imagine we wanted to at the relationship between the number of hours spent practicing the guitar per week and skill level. If we had reason to believe that the strength or direction of the relationship between these variables would be affected by the level of enjoyment, what type of analysis should be conducted on these data?
• ———– analysis tests a hypothetical causal chain where one variable $X$ affects a second variable $M$ and, in turn, the variable affects a third variable $Y$:
• A – – – – – – – – mediates the relationship between the independent and dependent variables explaining the reason for such a relationship to exist:
• ———— is a way to check whether that third variable influences the strength or direction of the relationship between an independent and dependent variable:
• Why is it a good idea to center your variable when conducting a moderation analysis?

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