# Category: R Language

## Binomial Random number Generation in R

We will learn here how to generate Bernoulli or Binomial distribution in R with the example of a flip of a coin. This tutorial is based on how to generate random numbers according to different statistical distributions in R. Our focus is on binomial random number generation in R.

We know that in Bernoulli distribution, either something will happen or not such as coin flip has to outcomes head or tail (either head will occur or head will not occur i.e. tail will occur). For an unbiased coin, there will be a 50% chance that the head or tail will occur in the long run. To generate a random number that is binomial in R, use rbinom(n, size, prob) command.

rbinom(n, size, prob) #command has three parameters, namey

where
‘n’ is the number of observations
‘size’ is the number of trials (it may be zero or more)
‘prob’ is the probability of success on each trial for example 1/2

Some Examples

• One coin is tossed 10 times with probability of success=0.5
coin will be fair (unbiased coin as p=1/2)
rbinom(n=10, size=1, prob=1/2)
OUTPUT: 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
• Two coins are tossed 10 times with probability of success=0.5
• rbinom(n=10, size=2, prob=1/2)
OUTPUT: 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 1
• One coin is tossed one hundred thousand times with probability of success=0.5
rbinom(n=100,000, size=1, prob=1/2)
• store simulation results in $x$ vector
x<- rbinom(n=100,000, size=5, prob=1/2)
count 1’s in x vector
sum(x)
find the frequency distribution
table(x)
creates a frequency distribution table with frequency
t = (table(x)/n *100)}
plot frequency distribution table
plot(table(x),ylab = "Probability",main = "size=5,prob=0.5")

View Video tutorial on rbinom command

## Reading Creating and Importing data in R Lanugage

There are many ways to read data into R-Language.  We will learn here importing data in R Language too. We can also generate certain kind of patterned data too. Some of them are

• ## Reading data from keyboard directly

For small data (few observations) one can input data in vector form directly on R Console, such as
x<-c(1,2,3,4,5)
y<-c(‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’)

In vector form data can be on several lines by omitting the right parentheses, until the data are complete, such as
x<-c(1,2
3,4)

Note that it is more convenient to use the scan function, which permits with the index of the next entry.

Using Scan Function

For small data set it is better to read data from console by using scan function. The data can be entered on separate line, by using single space and/or tab. After entering complete required data, pressing twice the enter key will terminate the scanning.

X<-scan()
3 4 5
4 5 6 7
2 3 4 5 6 6

Reading String Data using “what” Option

y<-scan(what=” “)
red green blue
white

The scan function can be used to import data. The scan function returns a list or a vector while read.table function returns a dataframe. It means that scan function is less useful for imputing “rectangular” type data.

• ## Reading data from ASCII or plain text file into R as dataframe

The read.table function read any type of delimited ASCII file. It can be numeric and character values. Reading data into R by read.table is easiest and most reliable method. The default delimiter is blank space.

Note that read.table command can also be used for reading data from computer disk by providing appropriate path in inverted commas such as

For missing data, read.table will did not work and you will receive an error. For missing values the easiest way to fix this error, change the type of delimiter by using sep argument to specify the delimiter.

Comma delimited files can be read in by read.table function and sep argument, but it can also be read in by the read.csv function specifically written for comma delimited files. To display the contents of the file use print function, or file name.

To read data in fixed format use read.fwf function and argument width is used to indicate the width (number of columns) for each variables. In this format variable names are not there in first line, therefore they must be added after read in the data. Variable names are added by dimnames function and the bracket notation to indicate that we are attaching names to the variables (columns) of the data file. Any how there are several different ways to to this task.

dimnames(data)[]<-c(“v1”, “v2”, “v3”, “v4”, “v5″,”v6”)

• ## Importing Data In R

Importing data in R is fairly simple. For Stata and Systat, use the foreign package. For SPSS and SAS recommended package is Hmisc package for ease and functionality. See the Quick-R section on packages, for information on obtaining and installing the these packages. Example of importing data in R are provided below.

From Excel
On windows systems you can use the RODBC package to access Excel files. The first row of excel file should contain variable/column names.

# Excel file name is myexcel and WorkSheet name is mysheet

library(RODBC)
channel <- odbcConnectExcel(“c:/myexel.xls”)
mydata <- sqlFetch(channel, “mysheet”)
odbcClose(channel)

From SPSS
# First save SPSS dataset in trasport format

get file=’c:\data.sav’.
export outfile=’c:\data.por’.

# in R
library(Hmisc)
mydata <- spss.get(“c:/data.por”, use.value.labels=TRUE)
# “use.value.labels” option converts value labels to R factors.

From SAS
# save SAS dataset in trasport format
libname out xport ‘c:/mydata.xpt’;
data out.data;
set sasuser.data;
run;

# in R
library(Hmisc)
mydata <- sasxport.get(“c:/data.xpt”)
# character variables are converted to R factors

From Stata
# input Stata file
library(foreign)

From systat
# input Systat file
library(foreign)

• ## Accessing Data in R Library

Many of the R libraries including CAR library contains data sets. For example to access the Duncan dataframe from the CAR library in R type the following command on R Console

library(car)
data(Duncan)
attach(Duncan)

## Some Important Commands for dataframes

data    #displays the entire data set on command editor
head(data)    #displays the first 6 rows of dataframe
tail(data)    #displays the last 6 rows of dataframe
str(data)    #displays the names of variable and their types
names(data)    #shows the variable names only
rename(V1,Variable1, dataFrame=data)    # renames V1 to variable 1; note that epicalc package must be installed.
ls()    #shows a list of objects that are available
attach(data)    #attached the dataframe to the R search path, which makes it easy to access variables names.

## Using R as Calculator

In the Windows Operating system, The R installer will have created an icon for R on the desktop and a Start Menu item. Double click the R icon to start the R Program; R will open the console, to type the R commands.

The greater than sing (>) in the console is the prompt symbol. In this tutorial, we will use the R language as a calculator (we will be Using R as a Calculator for mathematical expressions), by typing some simple mathematical expressions at the prompt (>). Anything that can be computed on a pocket calculator can also be computed at the R prompt. After entering the expression on prompt, you have to press the Enter key from the keyboard to execute the command. Some examples using R as a calculator are as follows

> 1 + 2   #add two or more numbers
> 1 – 2   #abstracts two or more numbers
> 1 * 2   #multiply two or more numbers
> 1 / 2   #divides two more more numbers
> 1%/ %2   #gives the integer part of the quotient
> 2 ^ 1   #gives exponentiation
> 31 %% 7   #gives the remainder after division

These operators also work fine for complex numbers.

Upon pressing the enter key, the result of the expression will appear, prefixed by a number in square bracket:
> 1 + 2
 54

The  indicates that this is the first result from the command.

Some advanced calculations that are available in scientific calculators can also be easily done in R for example

> sqrt(5)   #Square Root of a number
> log(10)   #Natural log of a number
> sin(45)   #Trignometric function (sin function)
> pi   #pi value 3.141593
> exp(2)   #Antilog, e raised to a power
> log10(5)   #Log of a number base 10
> factorial(5)   #Factorial of a number e.g 5!
> abs(1/-2)   #Absolute values of a number
> 2*pi/360   #Number of radian in one Babylonian degree of a circle

Remember R prints all very large or very small numbers in scientific notation.

R language also makes use of parentheses for grouping operations to follow the rules for order of operations. for example

> 1-2/3   #It first computes 2/3 and then subtracts it from 1
> (1-2)/3   #It first computes (1-2) and then divide it by 3

R recognizes certain goofs, like trying to divide by zero, missing values in data, etc.

> 1/0   #Undefined, R tells it an infinity (Inf)
> 0/0   #Not a number (NaN)
> “one”/2   #Strings or character is divided by a number

## Introduction to R Language

What is R (Language)
R is an open-source (GPL) programming language for statistical computing and graphics, made after S and S-plus language. The S language was developed by AT & T laboratories in the late ’80s. Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka started the research project of the statistics department of the University of Auckland in 1995 and called R Language.

The R language is currently maintained by the R core-development team (an international team of volunteer developers). The (R Project website) is the main site for information about R. From this page information about obtaining the software, accompanying package and many other sources of documentation (help files) can be obtained.

R provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques such as linear and non-linear modeling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, multivariate analysis, etc., as it is an integrated suite of software having facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphics display. It includes

• Effective data handling and storage facilities
• Have a suite of operators for calculation on arrays, particularly for matrices
• Have a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis
• Graphical data analysis
• Conditions, loops, user-defined recursive functions, and input-output facilities.

Obtaining R Software
R program can be obtained/downloaded from the R Project site the ready-to-run (binaries) files for several operating systems such as Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, etc. The source code for R is also available for download and can be compiled for other platforms. R language simplifies many statistical computations as R is a very powerful statistical language having many statistical routines (programming code) developed by people from all over the world and are freely available from the R project website as “Packages”. The basic installation of R language contains many powerful sets of tools and it includes some basic packages required for data handling and data analysis.

Many users of R think of R as a statistical system, but it is an environment within which statistical techniques are implemented. R can also be extended via packages.

Installing R
For windows, the operating system binary version is available from http://cran.r- project.org/bin/windows/base/. “R-3.0.0-win.exe. R-3.0.0” is the latest version of R released on 03-April-2013, by Duncan Murdoch.
After downloading the binary file double-click it, almost automatic installation of the R system will start although the customized installation option is also available. Follow the instruction during the installation procedure. Once the installation process is complete, you have the R icon on your computer desktop.

The R Console
When R starts, you will see R console windows, where you type some commands to get the required results. Note that commands are typed on the R Console command prompt. You can also edit the commands previously typed on the command prompt by using left, right, up, down arrow keys, home, end, backspace, insert and delete keys from the keyboard. Command history can be got by up and down arrow keys to scroll through recent commands. It is also possible to type commands in a file and then execute the file using the source function in the R console.

Books
Following books can be useful for learning the R and S language.

• “Psychologie statistique avec R” by Yvonnick Noel. Partique R. Springer, 2013.
• “Instant R: An introduction to R for Statistical Analysis” by Sarah Stowell. Jotunheim Publishing, 2012.
• “Financial Risk Modeling and Portfolio Optimization with R” by Bernhard Pfaff. Wiley, Chichester, Uk, 2012.
• “An R Companion to Applied Regression” by John Fox and Sanford Weisberg, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2nd Edition, 2011,
• “R Graphs Cookbook” by Hrishi Mittal, Packt Publishing, 2011
• “R in Action” by Rob Kabacoff. Manning, 2010.
• “The statistical analysis with R Beginners Guide” by John M. Quick. Packt Publishing, 2010.
• “Introducing Monte Carlo Methods with R” by Christian Robert and George Casella. Use R. Springer, 2010.
• “R for SAS and SPSS users” by Robert A. Muenchen. Springer Series in Statistics and Computing. Springer, 2009.