# Skewness and Measures of Skewness

If the curve is symmetrical, a deviation below the mean exactly equals the corresponding deviation above the mean. This is called symmetry. Here, we will discuss Skewness and Measures of Skewness.

Skewness is the degree of asymmetry or departure from the symmetry of a distribution. Positive Skewness means when the tail on the right side of the distribution is longer or fatter. The mean and median will be greater than the mode. Negative Skewness is when the tail of the left side of the distribution is longer or fatter than the tail on the right side.

Measures of Skewness

Karl Pearson Measure of Relative Skewness
In a symmetrical distribution, the mean, median, and mode coincide. In skewed distributions, these values are pulled apart; the mean tends to be on the same side of the mode as the longer tail. Thus, a measure of the asymmetry is supplied by the difference ($mean – mode$). This can be made dimensionless by dividing by a measure of dispersion (such as SD). The Karl Pearson measure of relative skewness is
$$\text{SK} = \frac{\text{Mean}-\text{mode}}{SD} =\frac{\overline{x}-\text{mode}}{s}$$
The value of skewness may be either positive or negative.

The empirical formula for skewness (called second coefficients of skewness) is

$$\text{SK} = \frac{3(\text{mean}-\text{median})}{SD}=\frac{3(\tilde{X}-\text{median})}{s}$$

Bowley Measure of Skewness
In a symmetrical distribution, the quartiles are equidistant from the median ($Q_2-Q_1 = Q_3-Q_2$). If the distribution is not symmetrical, the quartiles will not be equidistant from the median (unless the entire asymmetry is located in the extreme quarters of the data). The Bowley suggested measure of skewness is

$$\text{Quartile Coefficient of SK} = \frac{Q_(2-Q_2)-(Q_2-Q_1)}{Q_3-Q_1}=\frac{Q_2-2Q_2+Q_1}{Q_3-Q_1}$$

This measure is always zero when the quartiles are equidistant from the median and is positive when the upper quartile is farther from the median than the lower quartile. This measure of skewness varies between $+1$ and $-1$.
Moment Coefficient of Skewness
In any symmetrical curve, the sum of odd powers of deviations from the mean will be equal to zero. That is, $m_3=m_5=m_7=\cdots=0$. However, it is not true for asymmetrical distributions. For this reason, a measure of skewness is devised on the basis of $m_3$. That is

\begin{align}
\text{Moment of Coefficient of SK}&= a_3=\frac{m_3}{s^3}=\frac{m_3}{\sqrt{m_2^3}}\\
&=b_1=\frac{m_3^2}{m_2^3}
\end{align}

For perfectly symmetrical curves (normal curves), $a_3$ and $b_1$ are zero. 