A residual is the difference between the observed value of a response (dependent) variable and the value that is fitted under the hypothesized model usually denoted by e. A residual (or fitting error) is an observable estimate of the unobservable statistical error.

Each data point has one residual.

Residual = Observed value − Predicted value
e = y − ŷ

Note that the sum of the residuals within a random sample is necessarily zero, and thus the residuals are necessarily not independent.

Muhammad Imdad Ullah

Currently working as Assistant Professor of Statistics in Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan. Completed my Ph.D. in Statistics from the Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. l like Applied Statistics, Mathematics, and Statistical Computing. Statistical and Mathematical software used is SAS, STATA, GRETL, EVIEWS, R, SPSS, VBA in MS-Excel. Like to use type-setting LaTeX for composing Articles, thesis, etc.

You may also like...

x Logo: Shield Security
This Site Is Protected By
Shield Security