## WHAT STATISTICAL TEST IS APPROPRIATE? Secrets

### What Statistical Test is Appropriate?

The following is the outline of the factors relevant to the choice of statistical tests and a set of three charts that may be used to guide your selection of a test.

#### Choosing the right statistical test depends on

• Nature of the data
• Sample characteristics

#### A consideration of the nature of data includes

• Number of variables
• Not for the entire study, but for the specific question at hand
• Type of data
• Numerical, continuous
• Dichotomous, categorical information
• Rank-order or ordinal

#### A consideration of the sample characteristics includes

• Number of groups
• Sample type
• Normal distribution (parametric) or not (non-parametric)
• Independent or dependent

#### A consideration of the inferences to be made includes

• Data represent the population
• The group means are different
• There is a relationship between variables

#### Before choosing a statistical test, ask

• How many variables?
• How many groups?
• Is the distribution of data normal?
• Are the samples (groups) independent?
• What is your hypothesis or research question?
• Is the data continuous, ordinal, or categorical?
• In situations where one variable is studied, the chart below may guide your selection of statistical tests.

In situations where two variables are studied, the chart below may guide your selection of statistical tests.

In situations where three or more variables are studied, the chart below may guide your selection of statistical tests.

In summary,

• Statistical significance indicates the probability that results were chance findings
• The choice of a statistical test depends on the data, sample characteristics, and research question

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## Job Interview: Best Recently Asked Questions

Following are different Job Interview questions asked in interviews related to Jobs of Statistical Officer, Data Analyst, Lecturer in Statistics, Enumerator, etc. These recently asked questions are also useful for job interviews related to different disciplines.

### The recently asked questions are:

1. Job Description of an SO (Statistical Officer)?
2. What types of data are collected by PBS (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics)?
3. What is the role of the Chief Statistician?
4. How the reliability of data is checked by the SO in the field?
5. Problems, faced during the survey?
6. What is Electoral Sampling?
7. What is Price Data Collection?
8. What are the methods for Price Data collection?
9. What is GDP?
10. What is GNP?
11. How many Census has been there in Pakistan?
12. Difference between Classification and Tabulation.
13. What is the difference between an Error and a Mistake?
14. What is Reliability?
15. What are the Steps of Data Analysis?
16. Types of Sampling?
17. Difference between a Diagram and a Graph?
18. Difference between a Graph and a Chart?
19. Popular Surveys of Pakistan?
20. Problems of Surveys?
21. Difference between a Census and a Sample Survey?
22. What is the Population Census Organization (PCO)?
23. Which surveys are being done by the PBS?
24. Difference between Enumeration and Census?
25. Why do we use FPC in Sampling without replacement?
26. Elaborate on the difference between SPSS, Minitab, and E-views.
27. What is the Path Analysis?
28. What is the Variable Constraint?
29. Difference between the Main Effect and the Interaction Effect?
30. What is the Cooked Data?
31. What is the difference between Correlation and Covariance?
32. Which is a type of sampling used for Career counseling?
33. The unemployment rate in Pakistan?
34. What is cloud sourcing…related to data collection?
35. What was the previous name of PBS?
36. When did this PBS come into being? Under which law?
37. Who was the last Mughal Emperor?
38. What is the Shimla Agreement?
39. SIM stands for what?
40. ATM stands for what?
41. Poverty and Employment rates.
42. What is Inflation?
43. What is a Stock Market?
44. Constitutions of Pakistan with dates of approval?
45. What is a Corporate Sector?
46. What are KIBOR and LIBOR?
47. Last agriculture census?
48. Who is the Secretary of Planning & Development?
49. History of the Mughal Empire?
50. Difference between Fiscal and monetary policy?
51. No. of countries enlisted in the United Nations?
52. What does the Constitution of Pakistan say about the census?
53. What was Tehreek-e-Pakistan? Who were its members?
54. Why did Quad-i-Azam leave the Congress?
55. The 14 points of the Quaid?
56. Who is the Minister of Planning?
57. What was the Sindh-Taas Agreement?
58. What is the American-Iranian issue?
59. What is the Invariance Property?
60. What is COVID-19?
61. What is the 18th Amendment of the Constitution of Pakistan?
62. How can you define extreme poverty?

### You can answer and ask more questions in the comment section related to the job interview: Recently Asked Questions.

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R and Data Analysis

## Statistics Data Analysis Project (2021)

The main objective of the “Statistics Data Analysis Project” is to learn how to analyze and interpret the data. All the submitted videos will be compiled into one video file and it will be shared with each participant and different social platforms. The video will also be uploaded on YouTube. All participants’ names and their relevant provided information will be marked on their videos.

This data set contains information on 78 people using one of three diets.  A short description of the variable is given below.

What to do with data:

• You need to perform possible statistical analysis (data visualization, descriptive, and inferential) on this data using any statistical software.
• You may check statistical assumptions for data and different inferential tests.
• You may create new variables or recode the variables to perform different statistics.
• You also need to briefly describe the results obtained.
• You may record your audio for explanation purposes or may insert text using and text editor.
• For audio recording you may use your local language too, however preference is Urdu or English language.

What will you learn:

1. You will learn the use of different statistical software with a live demonstration of the procedure
2. You will learn how to perform the required statistical analysis on different types of data sets or variables.
3. You will learn how to interpret the results.
4. You will learn what must be done before performing any statistical analysis
5. You may also learn how to report or publish your results.

### Statistics Data Analysis Project Requirements

1. You need to record the video of whatever you do with data. For example, import of data file, setting of variable properties, step-by-step procedure of performing any required statistical analysis (such as descriptive statistics, t-test, and possible graphs, etc.)
2. Each participant will submit only one file.
3. For video recording, you can use any screen recording software. You can use ‘Sharex’ or ‘apowersoft’ screen recorder software’ too.
4. The total time of video must not exceed 10 minutes.
5. The file type should be mp4 with H.264/ H.265
6. The resolution may be ‘640 x 480’, ‘1280 x 720’, and 1920 x 1080’
8. For help with Statistical Software, you can visit: https://itfeature.com/statistical-softwares

Who Should Participate:
Any student, researcher, or teacher of Statistics

Note: The pure objectivity of the “Statistics Data Analysis Project” is to promote the subject of Statistics in Pakistan.

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Introduction to R Language

## Introduction to Matrix (2021)

This post is about some basic introduction to matrix.

Matrices are everywhere. If you have used a spreadsheet program such as MS Excel, or Lotus, written a table (such as in Ms-Word), or even have used mathematical or statistical software such as Mathematica, Matlab, Minitab, SAS, SPSS, Eviews, etc., you have used a matrix. Let us start with the Introduction to matrix.

### Introduction to Matrix

Matrices make the presentation of numbers clearer and make calculations easier to program. For example, the matrix is given below about the sale of tires in a particular store given by quarter and make of tires.

It is called a matrix, as information is stored in a particular order and different computations can also be performed. For example, if you want to know how many Michigan tires were sold in Quarter 3, you can go along the row ‘Michigan’ and column ‘Q3’ and find that it is 15.

Similarly, the total number of sales of ‘Michigan’ tiers can also be found by adding all the elements from Q1 to Q4 in the Michigan row. It sums to 55. So, a matrix is a rectangular array of elements. The elements of a matrix can be symbolic expressions or numbers. Matrix $[A]$ is denoted by;

Row $i$ of the matrix $[A]$ has $n$ elements and is $[a_{i1}, a_{i2}, cdots, a_{1n}] and column of$[A]$has$m$elements and is$begin{bmatrix}a_{1j}\ a_{2j} \ vdots\ a_{mj}end{bmatrix}$. The size (order) of any matrix is defined by the number of rows and columns in the matrix. If a matrix$[A]$has$m$rows and$n$columns, the size of the matrix is denoted by$(mtimes n)$. The matrix$[A]$can also be denoted by$[A]_{mtimes n}$to show that$[A]$is a matrix that has$m$rows and$n$columns in it. Each entry in the matrix is called the element or entry of the matrix and is denoted by$a_{ij}$, where$i$represents the row number and$j$is the column number of the matrix element. The above-arranged information about sales and types of tires can be denoted by the matrix$[A]$, that is, the matrix has 3 rows and 4 columns. So, the order (size) of the matrix is 3 x 4. Note that element$a_{23}\$ indicates the sales of tires in ‘Michigan’ in quarter 3 (Q3). That is all about Introduction to Matrix.

R and Data Analysis

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