Category: Miscellaneous Articles

Job Interview: Recently Asked Questions

Following are different Job Interview questions asked in interviews related to Jobs of Statistical Officer, Data Analysts, Lecturer in Statistics, Enumerator, etc. These questions are also useful for job interviews related to different disciplines.

  1. Job Description of an SO (Statistical Officer)?
  2. What types of data are collected by PBS (Pakistan Beaurea of Statistics)?
  3. What is the role of the Chief Statistician?
  4. How the reliability of data is checked by the SO in the field?
  5. Problems, faced during the survey?
  6. What is Electoral Sampling?
  7. What is Price Data Collection?
  8. What are the methods for Price Data collection?
  9. What is GDP?
  10. What is GNP?
  11. How many Census has been there in Pakistan?
  12. Difference between Classification and Tabulation.
  13. What is the difference between Error and Mistake?
  14. What is Reliability?
  15. What are the Steps of Data Analysis?
  16. Types of Sampling?
  17. Difference between a Diagram and Graph?
  18. Difference between a Graph and a Chart?
  19. Popular Surveys of Pakistan?
  20. Problems of Surveys?
  21. Difference between Census and Sample Survey?
  22. What is Population Census Organization (PCO)?
  23. Which surveys are being done by the PBS?
  24. Difference between Enumeration and Census?
  25. Why do we use FPC in Sampling without replacement?
  26. Elaborate on the difference between SPSS, Minitab, and E-views.
  27. What is the Path Analysis?
  28. What is the Variable Constraint?
  29. Difference between Main Effect and Interaction Effect?
  30. What is the Cooked Data?
  31. What is the difference between Correlation and Covariance?
  32. Which is a type of sampling used for Career counseling?
  33. The unemployment rate of Pakistan?
  34. What is cloud sourcing…related to data collection?
  35. What was the previous name of PBS?
  36. When did this PBS come into being? Under which law?
  37. Who was the last Mughal Emperor?
  38. What is the Shimla Agreement?
  39. SIM stands for what?
  40. ATM stands for what?
  41. Poverty and Employment rates.
  42. What is Inflation?
  43. What is a Stock Market?
  44. Constitutions of Pakistan with dates of approval?
  45. What is a Corporate Sector?
  46. What are KIBOR and LIBOR?
  47. Last agriculture census?
  48. Who is the Secretary of Planning & Development?
  49. History of the Mughal Empire?
  50. Difference between Fiscal and Monitory Policy?
  51. No. of countries enlisted in the United Nations?
  52. What does the Constitution of Pakistan say about the census?
  53. What was Tehreek-e-Pakistan? Who were its members?
  54. Why did Quad-i-Azam leave the Congress?
  55. The 14 points of the Quaid?
  56. Who is the Minister of Planning?
  57. What was Sindh-Taas Agreement?
  58. What is the American-Iranian issue?
  59. What is the Invariance Property?
  60. What is COVID19?
  61. What is the 18th amendment of the Constitution of Pakistan?
  62. How can you define extreme poverty?

You can answer and ask more questions in the comment section related to the job interview.

Statistics Data Analysis Challenge – 1

The main objective of the “Statistics Data Analysis Challenge” is to learn how to analyze and interpret the data. All the submitted videos will be compiled into one video file and it will be shared with each participant and different social platforms. The video will also be uploaded on YouTube. All participants’ names and their relevant provided information will be marked on their videos.

This data set contains information on 78 people using one of three diets.  A short description of the variable is given below.

Variable nameVariableData type
PersonParticipant number 
genderGender, 1 = male, 0 = femaleBinary
AgeAge (years)Scale
HeightHeight (cm)Scale
preweightWeight before the diet (kg)Scale
weight10weeksWeight after 10 weeks (kg)Scale
weightLOSTWeight lost after 10 weeks (kg)Scale

What to do with data:

  • You need to perform possible statistical analysis (data visualization, descriptive, and inferential) on this data using any statistical software.
  • You may check statistical assumptions for data and different inferential tests.
  • You may create new variable or recode the variables to perform different statistics.
  • You also need to shortly describe the results obtained.
  • You may record your own audio for explanation purpose or may insert text using and text editor.
  • For audio recording you may use your local language too, however preference is Urdu or English language.

What will you learn:

  1. You will learn the use of different statistical software with live demonstration of procedure
  2. You will learn how to perform the required statistical analysis on different type of data set or variables.
  3. You will learn how to interpret the results.
  4. You will learn what must be done before performing any statistical analysis
  5. You may also learn how to report or publish your results.

Challenge Requirements:

  1. You need to record the video of what ever you do with data. For example, import of data file, setting of variable properties, step by step procedure of performing any required statistical analysis (such as descriptive statistics, t-test, and possible graphs etc.)
  2. Each participant will submit only one file.
  3. For video recording you can use any screen recording software. You can use ‘Sharex’ or ‘apowersoft screen recorder software’ too.
  4. The total time of video must not exceed 10 minutes.
  5. File type should be mp4 with H.264/ H.265
  6. The resolution may be ‘640 x 480’, ‘1280 x 720’, and 1920 x 1080’
  7. You will email me (at [email protected]) the google drive or dropbox link of your ‘screen recorded video’ file.
  8. For help about Statistical Software you can visit:

Who Should Participate:
Any student, researcher, or teacher of Statistics

Download Data File:

Note: The pure objectivity of the “Statistics Data Analysis Challenge” is to promote the subject of Statistics in Pakistan.

Matrix Introduction

This post is about some basic introduction to a matrix.

Matrices are everywhere. If you have used a spreadsheet program such as MS-Excel, Lotus, or written a table (such as in Ms-Word) or even have used mathematical or statistical software such a Mathematica, Matlab, Minitab, SAS, SPSS and Eviews, etc., you have used a matrix. Let us start with the Introduction of the matrix.

Matrices make the presentation of numbers clearer and make calculations easier to program. For example, the matrix is given below about the sale of tires in a particular store given by quarter and make of tires.


It is called a matrix, as information is stored in a particular order and different computations can also be performed. For example, if you want to know how many Michigan tires were sold in Quarter 3, you can go along the row ‘Michigan’ and column ‘Q3’ and find that it is 15.

Similarly, the total number of sales of ‘Michigan’ tiers can also be found by adding all the elements from Q1 to Q4 in the Michigan row. It sums to 55. So, a matrix is a rectangular array of elements. The elements of a matrix can be symbolic expressions or numbers. Matrix [A] is denoted by;


Row i of the matrix [A] has n elements and is [ai1, ai2, … a1n] and column of [A] has m elements and is Matrix Column


The size (order) of any matrix is defined by the number of rows and columns in the matrix. If a matrix [A] has m rows and n columns, the size of the matrix is denoted by (m x n). The matrix [A] can also be denoted by [A]mxn to show that [A] is a matrix that has m rows and n columns in it.

Each entry in the matrix is called the element or entry of the matrix and is denoted by aij, where i represents the row number and j is the column number of the matrix element.

Matrix of tire Sale

The above-arranged information about sales and types of tires can be denoted by the matrix [A], that is, This matrix has 3 rows and 4 columns. So, the order (size) of the matrix is 3 x 4. Note that element a23 indicates the sales of tires in ‘Michigan’ in quarter 3 (Q3).

Algebra Introduction

This is about a Introduction to Algebra.

The basics of algebra include numbers, variables, constants, expressions, equations, linear equations, quadratic equations. Further, it involves the basic arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division within the algebraic expressions.

We work with numbers in arithmetic, while in algebra we use numbers as well as Alphabets such as $A, B, C, a, b$, and $c$ for any numerical values we choose. We can say that algebra is an extension of arithmetic. For example, the arithmetic sum of two numbers $5+3=8$ means that the sum of numbers 5 and 3 is 8. In algebra, two numbers can be summed by the expression $ x+y=z$ which is the general form that can be used to add any two numbers. For example, if $x=5$ and $y=3$ then $x+y$ will be equivalent to the left-hand side ($5+3$) and the summation of these numbers will be equivalent to the right-hand side $z$ which is 8.

In algebra all arithmetic operators such as $+, -, \times, =$ and $\div$ etc., can be use used.

For example, $x-y=z$ means that the difference between two numbers is equal to the number represented by the letter z. In algebra, many other notations used are exactly the same as in arithmetic. For example,

$c=a\times b$ means that the product of two numbers represented by $a$ and $b$ is equal to the number $c$.

$x \times x \times x$ can be written as $a^4$.

Algebra Introduction

From the above discussion, note that letters of alphabets represent variable,s and arithmetic operator (+, -, etc) represents the mathematical operation on a variable. The combination of numbers and letters of alphabets is called an algebraic expression. For example, $8x + 7y$, $x+y$ and $7x^2+2xy-5y^2$ etc., are examples of expression.

Some important points to remember:

  • A variable is a quantity (usually denoted by letters of the alphabet) in algebraic expressions and equations, that changes from place to place, person, to person, and/or time to time. The variable can have any one of a range of possible values.
  • A factor that multiplies with a variable. For example, in $2x^3+3x=0$, $x$ is a variable, 2 is coefficient of $x^3$ and 3 is coefficient of $x$.

That’s all about algebra introduction.