## Important Online Sampling MCQs – 3

The Online Quiz sampling MCQs are for the preparation of exams and different statistical job tests in Government/ Semi-Government or Private Organization sectors. The Online Sampling MCQs test is helpful to get admission to different colleges and Universities.

Online MCQs about Sample and Sampling Distributions for PPSC and FPSC test preparation

1. Why do sampling errors occur?

2. A restaurant gathers data about a new dish by providing free samples to parties of six or more diners. What does this scenario describe?

3. If all other factors specified in an attribute sampling plan remain constant, changing the specified tolerable deviation rate from 6% to 10%, and changing the specified risk from 97% to 93%, would cause the required sample size to

4. Data and business objectives might not align for a number of reasons. Which of the following issues can prevent alignment?

5. The advantage of using statistical sampling techniques is that such techniques

6. The standard error measures the _____ of a sampling distribution.

7. The instructor of a fitness class asks their regular students to take an online survey about the quality of the class. What sampling method does this scenario refer to?

8. A car manufacturer wants to learn more about the brand preferences of electric car owners. There are millions of electric car owners in the world. Who should the company survey?

9. Which of the following is an example of using statistical sampling?

10. Which of the following statements accurately describes a representative sample?

11. A large retail store needs to conduct a survey to learn why their consumers purchase the store’s products. How should the retail store survey their customers?

12. The sampling procedure in which an interviewer is asked to interview 25 teachers, 50 public servants, and 25 farmers are called

13. What stage of the sampling process refers to creating a list of all the items in the target population?

14. The sampling procedure that includes all units of the population in the study is called

15. Which of the following activities are stages in the typical sampling process?

16. Probability sampling is the procedure that gives all units

17. How is stratified sampling carried out?

18. Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of sampling listed in the text?

19. In statistics, _____ refers to the number of individuals or items chosen for a study or experiment.

20. Which of the following is not an example of a non-sampling risk?

Most of the MCQs on this page cover Sampling and Sampling Distributions, Probability Sampling and Non-Probability Sampling, Mean and Standard Deviation of Sample, Sample size, Sampling error, Sample bias, Sample Selection, etc.

### Online Sampling MCQs Quiz

• Probability sampling is the procedure that gives all units
• Which of the following is not an example of a non-sampling risk?
• The advantage of using statistical sampling techniques is that such techniques
• Which of the following is an example of using statistical sampling?
• Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of sampling listed in the text?
• How is stratified sampling carried out?
• The sampling procedure that includes all units of the population in the study is called
• Why do sampling errors occur?
• If all other factors specified in an attribute sampling plan remain constant, changing the specified tolerable deviation rate from 6% to 10%, and changing the specified risk from 97% to 93%, would cause the required sample size to
• The sampling procedure in which an interviewer is asked to interview 25 teachers, 50 public servants, and 25 farmers is called
• A large retail store needs to conduct a survey to learn why its consumers purchase the store’s products. How should the retail store survey its customers?
• Data and business objectives might not align for a number of reasons. Which of the following issues can prevent alignment?
• A car manufacturer wants to learn more about the brand preferences of electric car owners. There are millions of electric car owners in the world. Who should the company survey?
• A restaurant gathers data about a new dish by providing free samples to parties of six or more diners. What does this scenario describe?
• Which of the following statements accurately describes a representative sample?
• What stage of the sampling process refers to creating a list of all the items in the target population?
• The instructor of a fitness class asks their regular students to take an online survey about the quality of the class. What sampling method does this scenario refer to?
• Which of the following activities are stages in the typical sampling process?
• In statistics, ___________ refers to the number of individuals or items chosen for a study or experiment. The standard error measures the ___________ of a sampling distribution.

The sampling MCQs Quiz is about the Basics of Sampling and Sampling Distributions. It will help you to understand the basic concepts related to sampling methods and sampling distributions. This test will also help you to prepare yourself for different exams related to education or jobs.

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Test Preparation MCQs

## Standard Error 2

Standard error (SE) is a statistical term used to measure the accuracy within a sample taken from a population of interest. The standard error of the mean measures the variation in the sampling distribution of the sample mean, usually denoted by $\sigma_\overline{x}$ is calculated as

$\sigma_\overline{x}=\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}$

Drawing (obtaining) different samples from the same population of interest usually results in different values of sample means, indicating that there is a distribution of sampled means having its mean (average values) and variance. The standard error of the mean is considered the standard deviation of all those possible samples drawn from the same population.

The size of the standard error is affected by the standard deviation of the population and the number of observations in a sample called the sample size. The larger the standard deviation of the population ($\sigma$), the larger the standard error will be, indicating that there is more variability in the sample means. However, the larger the number of observations in a sample, the smaller the standard error of estimate, indicating that there is less variability in the sample means, whereas by less variability we mean that the sample is more representative of the population of interest.

If the sampled population is not very large, we need to make some adjustments in computing the SE of the sample means. For a finite population, in which the total number of objects (observations) is $N$ and the number of objects (observations) in a sample is $n$, then the adjustment will be $\sqrt{\frac{N-n}{N-1}}$. This adjustment is called the finite population correction factor. Then the adjusted standard error will be

$\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}} \sqrt{\frac{N-n}{N-1}}$

### Standard Error is used to

1. measure the spread of values of statistics about the expected value of that statistic
2. construct confidence intervals
3. test the null hypothesis about population parameter(s)

The SE is computed from sample statistic. To compute SE for simple random samples, assuming that the size of the population ($N$) is at least 20 times larger than that of the sample size ($n$).
\begin{align*}
Sample\, mean, \overline{x} & \Rightarrow SE_{\overline{x}} = \frac{n}{\sqrt{n}}\\
Sample\, proportion, p &\Rightarrow SE_{p} \sqrt{\frac{p(1-p)}{n}}\\
Difference\, b/w \, means, \overline{x}_1 – \overline{x}_2 &\Rightarrow SE_{\overline{x}_1-\overline{x}_2}=\sqrt{\frac{s_1^2}{n_1}+\frac{s_2^2}{n_2}}\\
Difference\, b/w\, proportions, \overline{p}_1-\overline{p}_2 &\Rightarrow SE_{p_1-p_2}=\sqrt{\frac{p_1(1-p_1)}{n_1}+\frac{p_2(1-p_2)}{n_2}}
\end{align*}

The SE is identical to the standard deviation, except that it uses statistics whereas the standard deviation uses the parameter.

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MCQs Mathematics Intermediate Second Year

## Sampling Theory, Introduction, and Reasons to Sample (2015)

### Introduction to Sampling Theory

Often we are interested in drawing some valid conclusions (inferences) about a large group of individuals or objects (called population in statistics). Instead of examining (studying) the entire group (population, which may be difficult or even impossible to examine), we may examine (study) only a small part (portion) of the population (an entire group of objects or people). Our objective is to draw valid inferences about certain facts about the population from results found in the sample; a process known as statistical inferences. The process of obtaining samples is called sampling and the theory concerning the sampling is called sampling theory.

### Example

Example: We may wish to conclude the percentage of defective bolts produced in a factory during a given 6-day week by examining 20 bolts each day produced at various times during the day. Note that all bolts produced in this case during the week comprise the population, while the 120 selected bolts during 6 days constitute a sample.

In business, medical, social, and psychological sciences, etc., research, sampling theory is widely used for gathering information about a population. The sampling process comprises several stages:

• Defining the population of concern
• Specifying the sampling frame (set of items or events possible to measure)
• Specifying a sampling method for selecting the items or events from the sampling frame
• Determining the appropriate sample size
• Implementing the sampling plan
• Sampling and data collecting
• Data that can be selected

### Reasons to Study a Sample

When studying the characteristics of a population, there are many reasons to study a sample (drawn from the population under study) instead of the entire population such as:

1. Time: it is difficult to contact every individual in the whole population
2. Cost: The cost or expenses of studying all the items (objects or individuals) in a population may be prohibitive
3. Physically Impossible: Some populations are infinite, so it will be physically impossible to check all items in the population, such as populations of fish, birds, snakes, and mosquitoes. Similarly, it is difficult to study the populations that are constantly moving, being born, or dying.
4. Destructive Nature of items: Some items, objects, etc. are difficult to study as during testing (or checking) they are destroyed, for example, a steel wire is stretched until it breaks and the breaking point is recorded to have a minimum tensile strength. Similarly different electric and electronic components are checked and they are destroyed during testing, making it impossible to study the entire population as time, cost and destructive nature of different items prohibit to study of the entire population.
5. Qualified and expert staff: For enumeration purposes, highly qualified and expert staff is required which is sometimes impossible. National and International research organizations, agencies, and staff are hired for enumeration purposive which is sometimes costly, needs more time (as a rehearsal of activity is required), and sometimes it is not easy to recruit or hire highly qualified staff.
6. Reliability: Using a scientific sampling technique the sampling error can be minimized and the non-sampling error committed in the case of a sample survey is also minimal because qualified investigators are included.

### Summary

Every sampling system is used to obtain some estimates having certain properties of the population under study. The sampling system should be judged by how good the estimates obtained are. Individual estimates, by chance, may be very close or may differ greatly from the true value (population parameter) and may give a poor measure of the merits of the system.

A sampling system is better judged by the frequency distribution of many estimates obtained by repeated sampling, giving a frequency distribution having a small variance and a mean estimate equal to the true value.

Click the link to Learn Sampling Theory, Sampling Frame, and Sampling Unit

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## Imortant MCQs Sampling Techniques 2

The test about MCQs Sampling Techniques for the preparation of exams and different statistical job tests in Government/ Semi-Government or Private Organization sectors. This MCQs Sampling Techniques test is also helpful in getting admission to different colleges and Universities.

Please go to Imortant MCQs Sampling Techniques 2 to view the test

Most of the MCQs on this page cover Sampling and Sampling Distributions, Probability Sampling and Non-Probability Sampling, Mean and Standard Deviation of Sample, Sample size, Sampling error, Sample bias, Sample Selection, etc.

### Online MCQs Sampling Techniques Quiz

• The sampling Error is
• The height distribution of a few students in a school is an example of
• The unbiased point estimator of the population mean is
• Bias is
• The sampling technique in which every element of the population has an equal, non-zero probability of being selected in a sample is called
• If the mean of the sampling distribution is equal to the parameters then estimators will be
• Probability distribution of $\overline{X}$ is called its
• The probability distribution of a statistic is called
• A magazine conducts a survey and asks its readers to cut the questionnaire from the magazine, fill it and send it via mail. It is a type of
• The standard error of the mean is the standard deviation of the
• What best describes a sample size?
• In the data analysis process, how does a sample relate to a population?
• When working with sample data, what is the first step in the sampling process?
• Probability sampling uses selection to generate a sample.
• A data professional is conducting an election poll. As a first step in the sampling process, they identify the target population. What is the second step in the sampling process?
• In a _ sample, every member of a population is selected randomly and has an equal chance of being chosen.
• Non-probability sampling includes which of the following sampling methods?
• What term describes a probability distribution of a sample statistic?
• A data professional is conducting an employee satisfaction survey. First, they list all the employees alphabetically by first name. Then, they randomly choose a starting point on the list and pick every third name to be in the sample. What sampling method are they using?
• A restaurant wants to gather data about a new dish by giving out free samples and asking for feedback. Who should the restaurant give samples to?

The MCQs sampling Techniques Quiz is about the Basics of Sampling and Sampling Distributions. It will help you to understand the basic concepts related to sampling methods and sampling distributions. This test will also help you to prepare yourself for different exams related to education or jobs.

MCQs General Knowledge

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