# Category: Statistical Tables

Mostly used statistical tables, Z-table, t-table, F-table, chi-square table etc.

## The Z-Score: Introduction, Formula, Real Life Example

The Z-Score also referred to as standardized raw scores is a useful statistic because not only permits to compute the probability (chances or likelihood) of the raw score (occurring within normal distribution) but also helps to compare two raw scores from different normal distributions. The Z-score is a dimensionless measure since it is derived by subtracting the population mean from an individual raw score and then this difference is divided by the population standard deviation. This computational procedure is called standardizing raw score, which is often used in the Z-test of testing of hypothesis.

Any raw score can be converted to a Z-score by

$Z-Score=\frac{raw score – mean}{\sigma}$

Example 1:

If the mean = 100 and standard deviation = 10, what would be the Z-score of the following raw score

 Raw Score Z-Score 90 $\frac{90-100}{10}=-1$ 110 $\frac{110-100}{10}=1$ 70 $\frac{70-100}{10}=-3$ 100 $\frac{100-100}{10}=0$

Note that: If Z-Score,

• has a zero value then it means that the raw score is equal to the population mean.
• has positive value then it means that the raw score is above the population mean.
• has a negative value then it means that the raw score is below the population mean. Example 2:

Suppose you got 80 marks in Exam of a class and 70 marks in another exam of that class. You are interested in finding that in which exam you have performed better. Also, suppose that the mean and standard deviation of exam1 are 90 and 10 and in exam2 60 and 5 respectively. Converting both exam marks (raw scores) into the standard score, we get

$Z_1=\frac{80-90}{10} = -1$

The Z-score results ($Z_1=-1$) shows that 80 marks are one standard deviation below the class mean.

$Z_2=\frac{70-60}{5}=2$

The Z-score results ($Z_2=2$) show that 70 marks are two standard deviations above the mean.

From $Z_1$ and $Z_2$ means that in second exam students performed well as compared to the first exam. Another way to interpret the Z-score of $-1$ is that about 34.13% of the students got marks below the class average. Similarly, the Z-score of 2 implies that 47.42% of the students got marks above the class average.

## Standard Normal Table

A standard normal table, also called the unit normal table or Z-table, is a table for the values of Φ calculated mathematically, and these are the values from the cumulative normal distribution function. A standard normal table is used to find the probability that a statistic is observed below, above, or between values on the standard normal distribution, and by extension, any normal distribution. Since probability tables cannot be printed for every normal distribution, as there is an infinite variety (families) of normal distributions, so it is common practice to convert a normal to a standard normal and then use the standard normal table to find the required probabilities (area under the normal curve).

The standard normal curve is symmetrical in nature, so the table can be used for values going in any direction, for example, a negative 0.45 or positive 0.45 has an area of 0.1736.

The Standard Normal distribution is used in various hypothesis testing procedures such as tests on single means, the difference between two means, and tests on proportions. The Standard Normal distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

The values inside the given table represent the areas under the standard normal curve for values between 0 and the relative z-score.

The table value for Z is 1 minus the value of the cumulative normal distribution.

For example, the value for 1.96 is P(Z>1.96) = .0250.

For further details see Standard Normal

See about the measure of asymmetry