Tagged: DOE

DOE Terminology

Planning an experiment to obtain appropriate data and drawing inferences from the data concerning any problem under investigation is known as the design and analysis of the experiment.

Important DOE Terminology are:

EXPERIMENT: An experiment deliberately imposes a treatment on a group of objects or subjects in the interest of observing the response.

EXPERIMENTAL UNIT: The experimental unit is the basic entity or unit on which the experiment is performed. It is an object to which the treatment is applied and in which the variable under investigation is measured and analyzed. For example, the experimental unit may be a single person, animal, plant, manufactured item, or country that belongs to a larger collection of such entities being studied.

DOE Terminology: Experimental Unit

Identify the Experimental Units:

  • A teacher practices the different teaching methods on different groups in her class to see which yields the best results.
  • A doctor treats a patient with a skin condition with different creams to see which is most effective.

The experimental unit is the physical entity or subject exposed to the treatment independently of other units. In other words, it is the basic unit on which the experiment is performed (smallest division of experimental material).

TREATMENTS: In experiments, a treatment is something that researchers administer to experimental units. For example, a corn field is divided into four, each part is ‘treated’ with a different fertilizer to see which produces the most corn.

Treatment is an experimental condition whose effect is to be measured and compared. For example, animal diets, temperature, soil types, and brands of tires.

FACTOR: A factor of an experiment is a controlled independent variable; a variable whose levels are set by the experimenter. A factor is a general type or category of treatments. Different treatments constitute different levels of a factor.

EXPERIMENTAL ERROR: It describes the variation among identically and independently treated experimental units.
The various origins of experimental error include:

  • The natural variation among the experimental units.
  • Inability to reproduce the treatment conditions exactly from one unit to another.
  • Interaction of treatments and experimental units.
  • Any other extraneous factors that influence the measured characteristics.

There are two types of errors:

  1. Systematic Errors
  2. Random Error

The experimental error can be controlled by

  • Blocking
  • Proper plot technique
  • Data Analysis

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: An experimental design is a plan to collect the data relevant to the problem under investigation. In such a way as to provide a basis for valid and objective inferences about the stated problem.

The plan usually consists of the selection of the treatments, specifications of the experimental layouts, allocation of the treatments, and collection of observations for analysis.

Hence experimental design is simply a sequence of steps taken ahead of time to ensure that the appropriate data will be obtained in a way that permits an objective analysis leading to a valid analysis concerning the problem.

Design of Experiments Overview

Regarding the Design of Experiments: an experiment is usually a test trial or series of tests. The objective of the experiment may either be

  1. Confirmation
  2. Exploration

Designing an experiment means, providing a plan and actual procedure for laying out the experiment. It is a design of any information-gathering exercise where variation is present under the full or no control of the experimenter. The experimenter in the design of experiments is often interested in the effect of some process or intervention (the treatment) on some objects (the experimental units) such as people, parts of people, groups of people, plants, animals, etc. So the design of the experiment is an efficient procedure for planning experiments so that the data obtained can be analyzed to yield objective conclusions.

In the observational study, the researchers observe individuals and measure variables of interest but do not attempt to influence the response variable, while in an experimental study, the researchers deliberately (purposely) impose some treatment on individuals and then observe the response variables. When the goal is to demonstrate cause and effect, the experiment is the only source of convincing data.

Statistical Design

By the statistical design of experiments, we refer to the process of planning the experiment, so that the appropriate data will be collected, which may be analyzed by statistical methods resulting in valid and objective conclusions. Thus there are two aspects to any experimental problem:

  1. The design of the experiments
  2. The statistical analysis of the data

There are many experimental designs that differ from each other primarily in the way, in which the experimental units are classified, before the application of treatment.

Design of experiment (DOE) helps in

  • Identifying the relationships between cause and effect
  • Provide some understanding of interactions among causative factors
  • Determining the level at which to set the controllable factors in order to optimize reliability
  • Minimizing the experimental error i.e., noise
  • Improving the robustness of the design or process to variation
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