Scatter Diagram: Graphical Representation

A scatterplot (also called a scatter graph or scatter Diagram) is used to observe the strength and direction between two quantitative variables. In statistics, the quantitative variables follow the interval or ratio scale from measurement scales.

Scatter Diagram

Usually, in a scatter, diagram the independent variable (also called the explanatory, regressor, or predictor variable) is taken on the X-axis (the horizontal axis) while on the Y-axis (the vertical axis) the dependent (also called the outcome variable) is taken to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables. However, it is not necessary to take explanatory variables on the X-axis and outcome variables on the Y-axis. Because, the scatter diagram and Pearson’s correlation measure the mutual correlation (interdependencies) between the variables, not the dependence or cause and effect.

The diagram below describes some possible relationships between two quantitative variables ($X$ & $Y$). A short description is also given of each possible relationship.

Scatter diagram

A scatter diagram can be drawn between two quantitative variables. The length (number of observations) of both of the variables should be equal. Suppose, we have two quantitative variables $X$ and $Y$. We want to observe the strength and direction of the relationship between these two variables. It can be done in R language easily.

x <- c(5, 7, 8, 7, 2, 2, 9, 4, 11 ,12, 9, 6)
y <- c(99, 86, 87, 88, 111, 103, 87, 94, 78, 77, 85, 86)

plot(x, y)

From the above discussion, it is clear that the main objective of a scatter diagram is to visualize the linear or some other type of relationship between two quantitative variables. The visualization may also help to depict the trends, strength, and direction of the relationship between variables.

For more about correlation and regression analysis

Learn R Language for Statistical Computing

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