Index Numbers An Introduction

The index numbers are numbers that “measure a relative change in a variable or an average relative change in a group of related variables concerning a base”. An index number indicates the level of certain phenomena at some given period in comparison with the level of the same phenomena at some reference period. The index numbers are usually constructed for economic variables such as price, quantity, wage, unemployment, investment, cost of living, etc.

Index numbers are free from units of measurement because they show relative changes. For ease of understanding, index numbers are expressed in percentages. To construct an index number at least two periods are required and a period that is economically stable and has no major crisis caused by wars, diseases, strikes, food shortage, etc. known as the normal period is selected as a base. Index numbers of wholesale prices and consumer prices, etc. are published by the Federal Bureau of Statistics and State Bank of Pakistan.

Uses/ Need of Index Numbers

There are many uses for index numbers but the most important are:

  • Many economic plans and Government policies depend on index numbers, for example, to control rising prices of government imports from other countries or give subsidies (financial support) to the manufacturer.
  • The Price index number is used to know the purchasing ability of money at different periods and places.
  • The quantity index number is used to know the changes in the quantities produced, consumed, sold, purchased, imported or exported, etc.
  • Consumer price index numbers are used to know people’s standards of living and the goods and services used by them.
  • Index numbers are used to forecast future economic trends
  • Cyclical (long-term movements, which are in the form of oscillation) and seasonal (short-term movements, which are linked with the seasons or movements that repeat themselves within a fixed period) movements are measured by index number.
Index Numbers

Shortcomings of Index Number

Index numbers can not be used freely due to the following shortcomings:

  • An improper base period gives misleading results. Base periods must be free from all types of crises caused by wars, diseases, strikes, food shortages, etc. If such a period is not available then the average of some or all the periods is selected as the base.
  • Selection of favorite commodities is difficult because the use of services and commodities by individuals varies with the locality of people, social customs, standard of living, occupation, ideas of saving, courage of investment, and sources of income, etc.
  • The quality of a product cannot be observed at each point, that is, ball-to-ball commentary is difficult. For example, if we want to view the quality of cloth at each thread before purchasing it becomes impossible.
  • Index number gives a rough measure of relative changes because sampling error or error of measurement may occur at the stages of gathering data or the base period may be improper or the number of commodities may be less than required. According to Dr. Arriving Fisher, the accuracy of index numbers may be increased by increasing the number of commodities.
  • Different methods of index numbers usually give different results.
  • Prices vary from place to place according to the idea of profit of investors, expenditures on transportation, and awareness about the psychology of buyers, hence their collection is difficult.

Examples of Important Index Numbers:

  • Consumer Price Index (CPI): Tracks changes in the prices of goods and services purchased by consumers.
  • Producer Price Index (PPI): Measures the average change in prices received by domestic producers for their output.
  • Wholesale Price Index (WPI): Tracks the price changes of goods traded in wholesale markets.
  • Industrial Production Index (IPI): Measures the volume of physical production in the industrial sector.

In conclusion, index numbers are a powerful tool for summarizing complex economic information and identifying trends. They play a vital role in economic analysis, decision-making, and understanding changes in our world over time.

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