Characteristics of Statistics
The characteristics of statistics are
- Statistics deals with the behavior of aggregates or large groups of data. It has nothing to do with what is happening to a particular individual or object of the aggregate.
- Statistics deals with aggregates of observations of the same kind rather than isolated figures.
- Statistics deals with variability that obscure underlying patterns. No two objects in this universe are exactly alike. If they were there would have been no statistical problem.
- Statistics deals with uncertainties as every process of getting observations whether controlled or uncontrolled involves deficiencies or chance variation. That is why we have to talk in terms of probability.
- Statistics deals with those characteristics or aspects of things which can be described numerically either by counts or by measurements.
- Statistics deals with those aggregates which are subject to a number of random causes, e.g. the heights of persons are subject to a number of causes such as race, ancestry, age, diet, habits, climate, and so forth.
- Statistical laws are valid on average or in the long run. There is no guarantee that a certain law will hold in all cases. Statistical inference is therefore made in the face of uncertainty.
- Statistical results might be misleading and incorrect if sufficient care in collecting, processing, and interpreting the data is not exercised or if the statistical data are handled by a person who is not well versed in the subject matter of statistics.