# Characteristics of Statistics (2020)

The subject of Statistics can be considered from two angles: the data itself and the field of study.

### The Characteristics of Statistics as Data

1. Statistics deals with the behavior of aggregates or large groups of data. It has nothing to do with what is happening to a particular individual or object of the aggregate.
2. Statistics deals with aggregates of observations of the same kind rather than isolated figures.
3. Statistics deals with variability that obscures underlying patterns. No two objects in this universe are exactly alike. If they were there would have been no statistical problem.
4. Among the important characteristics of statistics is that statistics deals with uncertainties as every process of getting observations whether controlled or uncontrolled involves deficiencies or chance variation. That is why we have to talk in terms of probability.
5. Statistics deals with characteristics or aspects of things that can be described numerically by counts or measurements.
6. Statistics deals with aggregates that are subject to several random causes, e.g., the heights of persons are subject to several causes such as race, ancestry, age, diet, habits, climate, etc.
7. Statistical laws are valid on average or in the long run. There is no guarantee that a certain law will hold in all cases. Statistical inference is therefore made in the face of uncertainty.
8. Among the important characteristics of Statistics is that statistical results might be misleading and incorrect if sufficient care in collecting, processing, and interpreting the data is not exercised or if the statistical data are handled by someone not well-versed in the subject matter of statistics.

### Characteristics of Statistics as a Field:

• Science and Art: Statistics combines aspects of both science and art. It employs scientific methods for data collection and analysis but also requires interpretation and judgment from the statistician.
• Use of Methods and Techniques: Statistics is a discipline built on a foundation of well-defined methods and techniques for data analysis, like calculating measures of central tendency or dispersion.
• Universally Applicable: Statistical methods have widespread applications across various fields, from social sciences and business to engineering and medicine.
• Focus on Relationships: Statistical analysis goes beyond just summarizing data. It aims to uncover relationships, patterns, and trends within the data set.

By understanding these characteristics of statistics, one can gain a better appreciation of the role statistics plays in various aspects of our world. It’s a discipline that helps us make sense of data, quantify uncertainty, and ultimately gain knowledge from the information we collect.

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