Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

In this post, we will discuss Qualitative vs Quantitative Research. Qualitative vs quantitative research involves collecting data based on some qualities and quantities, respectively. Let us discuss both the Qualitative and Quantitative Research in detail below.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research involves collecting data from in-depth interviews, observations, field notes, and open-ended questions in questionnaires, etc. The researcher himself is the primary data collection instrument and the data could be collected in the form of words, images, patterns, etc. For Qualitative Research, Data Analysis involves searching for patterns, themes, and holistic features. Results of such research are likely to be context-specific and reporting takes the form of a narrative with contextual description and direct quotations from researchers.

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research involves collecting quantitative data based on precise measurement using some structured, reliable, and validated collection instruments (questionnaires) or through archival data sources. The nature of quantitative data is in the form of variables and its data analysis involves establishing statistical relationships. If properly done, the results of such research are generalizable to the entire population. Quantitative research could be classified into two groups depending on the data collection methodologies:

Research Design: qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Experimental Research

The main purpose of experimental research is to establish a cause-and-effect relationship. The defining characteristics of experimental research are the active manipulation of independent variables and the random assignment of participants to the conditions to be manipulated, everything else should be kept as similar and as constant as possible. To depict the way experiments are conducted, a term used is called the design of the experiment. There are two main types of experimental design.  

Within-Subject Design
In a within-subject design, the same group of subjects serves in more than one treatment

Between Subjects Design
In between-group design, two or more groups of subjects, each of which is tested by a different testing factor simultaneously.

Non-Experimental Research

Non-Experimental Research is commonly used in sociology, political science, and management disciplines. This kind of research is often done with the help of a survey. There is no random assignment of participants to a particular group nor do we manipulate the independent variables. As a result, one cannot establish a cause-and-effect relationship through non-experimental research. There are two approaches to analyzing such data: 

Tests for approaches to analyzing such data such as IQ level of participants from different ethnic backgrounds.

Tests for significant association between two factors such as firm sales and advertising expenditure.

Read about What is Research? Why we do conduct it?

R Frequently Asked Questions

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