### Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient SPSS

Pearson’s correlation coefficient (or correlation or simply correlation) is used to find the degree of linear relationship between two continuous variables. The value for a correlation coefficient lies between 0.00 (no correlation) and 1.00 (perfect correlation). Generally, correlations above 0.80 are considered pretty high.

**Remember:**

- Correlation is the interdependence of continuous variables, it does not refer to cause and effect.
- Correlation is used to determine the linear relationship between variables.
- Draw a scatter plot before performing/calculating the correlation (to check the assumptions of linearity)

#### How to Perform Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient SPSS

The command for correlation is found at Analyze –> Correlate –> Bivariate i.e.

The Bivariate Correlation Coefficient SPSS dialog box will be there:

Select one of the variables that you want to correlate in the left-hand pane of the Bivariate Correlations dialog box and shift it into the Variables pane on the right-hand pan by clicking the arrow button. Now click on the other variable that you want to correlate in the left-hand pane and move it into the Variables pane by clicking on the arrow button

#### Correlation Coefficient SPSS Output

The Correlations table in the output gives the values of the specified correlation tests, such as Pearson’s correlation. Each row of the table corresponds to one of the variables similarly each column also corresponds to one of the variables.

#### Interpreting Correlation Coefficient

For example, the cell at the bottom row of the right column represents the correlation of depression with depression which is equal to 1.0. Likewise, the cell at the middle row of the middle column represents the correlation of anxiety with anxiety having a correlation value This in in both cases shows that anxiety is related to anxiety similarly depression is related to depression, so have the perfect relationship.

The cell in the middle row and right column (or the cell in the bottom row at the middle column) is more interesting. This cell represents the correlation between anxiety and depression (or depression with anxiety). There are three numbers in these cells.

- The top number is the correlation coefficient value which is 0.310.
- The middle number is the significance of this correlation which is 0.018.
- The bottom number, 46 is the number of observations that were used to calculate the correlation coefficient. between the variables of the study.

Note that the significance tells us whether we would expect a correlation that was this large purely due to chance factors and not due to an actual relation. In this case, it is improbable that we would get an r (correlation coefficient) this big if there was not a relation between the variables.